lithium ion battery Working, Advantages, Disadvantages, Materials Used, Comparison, Application

Hello guys, welcome back to my blog. In this article, I will discuss what is a lithium-ion battery, functions of the lithium-ion battery, working of the lithium-ion battery, materials used in a lithium-ion battery, advantages of the lithium-ion battery, disadvantages of the lithium-ion battery, applications of the lithium-ion battery, comparison of lithium-ion battery with other batteries, etc and lot more things I will discuss in the article. 

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Nowadays, the lithium-ion battery is widely used in electric vehicle's, laptops, mobiles, etc. The lithium-ion battery has lots of advantages compared to other batteries. 

What is a lithium-ion battery?


The lithium-ion battery is made up of a combination of lithium cells. The lithium cell consists of some components such as a negative electrode, a positive electrode, electrolyte, separator, current collectors, etc. A cell means which consist of single anode and cathode separated by an electrolyte used to produce voltage and current.

Construction and working of lithium-ion cell
lithium ion battery Working, Advantages, Disadvantages, Materials Used, Comparison, Application
The fundamental components of an electrochemical cell are:

01. Negative electrode
02. Positive electrode
03. Electrolyte
04. Separator
05. Current collectors

The function of the negative electrode


lithium ion battery Working, Advantages, Disadvantages, Materials Used, Comparison, Application
The above image shows the negative electrode. The negative electrode is often an alloy or metal or hydrogen. During the discharge process, the negative electrodes give up electrons to the external circuit. During the charging process, the negative electrode accepts electrons from the external circuit. During the discharge process, it is the anode but during the charging process, it is the cathode, but most people still call it anode.

The function of the positive electrode
lithium ion battery Working, Advantages, Disadvantages, Materials Used, Comparison, Application
The above image shows the positive electrode. The positive electrode is often a sulfide, metallic oxide, or oxygen. During the discharge process, the positive electrode accepts electrons from the external circuit. During the charging process, the positive electrode gives up electrons to the external circuit. During discharge, the positive electrode becomes the anode and technically, during the charging process, it becomes the cathode, but most people still call it anode.

The function of the electrolyte


lithium ion battery Working, Advantages, Disadvantages, Materials Used, Comparison, Application

When the electrons move into the external circuit, compensating ions must move internally to the cell. Cations are ions with net positive charge as shown in the above image, during the discharging process they move through the electrolyte toward the positive electrode. Anions are ions with net negative charge, during the discharging process, they move through the electrolyte toward the negative electrode. The electrolyte provides a bath for internal ion charge to transfer between the electrodes. The electrolyte is often solvent containing dissolved chemicals such as base, acid or salt providing ionic conductivity. The electrolyte must be an electronic insulator to avoid self-discharge.

The functions of a separator and current collectors
lithium ion battery Working, Advantages, Disadvantages, Materials Used, Comparison, Application
The function of separator in the lithium-ion cell is to electrically isolate the positive and negative electrodes to avoid self-discharge of the cell and short circuit. The separator is often made from fiber, polyethylene, glass mat, or polymer. The function of the current collector is to conduct electrical current to cell terminals, it is made of metal foils.

Nominal voltage of the lithium-ion cell

The nominal voltage of the lithium-ion cell is 3.60V/cell.

Benefits or advantages of lithium-ion cell

01. The lithium-ion cell has higher energy and power density when compared to other batteries.
02. The lithium-ion cell has self-discharge very slow.
03. The energy density of the lithium-ion cell is 400 wh/L.
04. The energy efficiency of the lithium-ion cell is 80%.
05. The power density of the lithium-ion cell is 800+ W/L.

Drawbacks or disadvantages of lithium-ion cell

01. The cost of lithium cells is very high.
02. The battery management system is required.
03. Sensitive to overcharge leads to exposure.
04. Lithium plating is generally caused at low temperatures or voltages, which causes loss in lithium.

Applications of the lithium-ion cell


The lithium-ion cells are used in;

01. Defense
02. Aerospace
03. Instrumentation
04. Oil drilling
05. Mobile phones
06. Laptops
07. Power tools
08. Electric powertrains

I hope this article may help you all a lot. Thank you for reading.
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